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八大常用基础电路保护器件作用总结
八大常用基础电路保护器件作用总结
Summary of the Role of Eight Commonly Used Basic Circuit Protection Devices
电路保护元器件应用领域广泛,只要有电的地方就有安装电路保护元器件的必要,如各类家用电器、家庭视听及数码产品、个人护理等消费类电子产品、计算机及其周边、手机及其周边、照明、医疗电子、汽车电子、电力、工业设备等,涵盖人们生产生活的方方面面。
Circuit protection components are widely used in many fields. As long as there is electricity, it is necessary to install circuit protection components, such as all kinds of household appliances, home audio-visual and digital products, personal care and other consumer electronic products, computers and their surrounding areas, mobile phones and their surrounding areas, lighting, medical electronics, automotive electronics, power, industrial equipment, etc., covering all aspects of people's production and life. Noodles.
电路保护主要有两种形式:过压保护和过流保护。选择适当的电路保护器件是实现高效、可靠电路保护设计的关键,涉及到电路保护器件的选型,我们就必须要知道各电路保护器件的作用。在选择电路保护器件的时候我们要知道保护电路不应干扰受保护电路的正常行为,此外,其还必须防止任何电压瞬态造成整个系统的重复性或非重复性的不稳定行为。
There are two main forms of circuit protection: overvoltage protection and overcurrent protection. Choosing appropriate circuit protection devices is the key to achieve efficient and reliable circuit protection design. It involves the selection of circuit protection devices. We must know the role of each circuit protection device. When choosing circuit protection devices, we should know that the protection circuit should not interfere with the normal behavior of the protected circuit. In addition, it must prevent any voltage transient from causing repetitive or non-repetitive unstable behavior of the whole system.
防雷过压器件分为钳位型过压器件和开关型过压器件,开关型过压器件就是我们熟知的防雷器件:陶瓷气体放电管、半导体放电管和玻璃放电管;钳位型过压器件有瞬态抑制二极管、压敏电阻、贴片压敏电阻和ESD放电二极管;过流器件则以PTC元件自恢复保险丝为主,以下是其具体作用:
Lightning protection overvoltage devices are divided into clamping overvoltage devices and switching overvoltage devices. Switching overvoltage devices are well-known lightning protection devices: ceramic gas discharge tubes, semiconductor discharge tubes and glass discharge tubes; clamping overvoltage devices include transient suppression diodes, varistors, patch varistors and ESD discharge diodes; overcurrent devices are mainly PTC component self-recovery fuses. The following are its specific roles:
1.放电管的作用:放电管常用于多级保护电路中的第一级或前两级,起泄放雷电暂态过电流和限制过电压作用,放电管是通过将电压限制在较低的水平,从而起到保护作用。硕凯电子的放电管又分为气体放电管和固体放电管,气体放电管主要以陶瓷气体放电管和玻璃气体放电管为主,具体应用中放电管类别和型号的选择则需要工程师根据产品应用端口的防护等级以及相关选型参数来确定。
1. The function of discharge tube: discharge tube is often used in the first or the first two stages of multi-stage protection circuit to discharge lightning transient overcurrent and limit overvoltage. The discharge tube plays a protective role by limiting the voltage to a lower level. The discharge tube of Shuokai Electronics is divided into gas discharge tube and solid discharge tube.zidongment.75ix.com wat.75ix.com yasi.75ix.cn xingtai.89ix.com chengde.89ix.com langfang.89ix.com  The gas discharge tube mainly consists of ceramic gas discharge tube and glass gas discharge tube. The choice of the type and type of discharge tube in specific application needs to be determined by engineers according to the protection level of the application port of the product and the relevant selection parameters.
2.瞬态抑制二极管的作用:瞬态抑制二极管能以10的负12次方秒量级的速度,将其两极间的高阻抗变为低阻抗,吸收高达数千瓦的浪涌功率,使两极间的电压箝位于一个预定值,有效地保护电子线路中的精密元器件,免受各种浪涌脉冲的损坏。
2. Function of Transient Suppression Diode: Transient Suppression Diode can change the high impedance between its two poles into low impedance at the speed of minus 12 seconds, absorb the surge power up to thousands of watts, so that the voltage between the two poles can be clamped at a predetermined value, effectively protecting the precise components in the electronic circuit from the damage of various surge pulses.
3.压敏电阻的作用:压敏电阻是一种限压型保护器件,电路保护中主要是利用压敏电阻的非线性特性,当过电压出现在压敏电阻的两极间,压敏电阻可以将电压钳位到一个相对固定的电压值,从而实现对后级电路的保护。
3. The function of varistor: varistor is a kind of voltage-limiting protection device. In circuit protection, the non-linear characteristic of varistor is mainly used. When the overvoltage appears between the two poles of varistor, the varistor can clamp the voltage to a relatively fixed voltage value, thus realizing the protection of the later circuit.
4.贴片压敏电阻的作用:贴片压敏电阻主要用于保护元件和电路,防止在电源供应、控制和信号线产生的ESD。
4. The function of patch varistors: patch varistors are mainly used to protect components and circuits from ESD generated in power supply, control and signal lines.
5.ESD静电放电二极管的作用:ESD静电放电二极管是一种过压、防静电保护元件,是为高速数据传输应用的I/O端口保护设计的器件。ESD保护器件是用来避免电子设备中的敏感电路受到ESD(静电放电)的影响。可提供非常低的电容,具有优异的传输线脉冲(TLP)测试,以及IEC6100-4-2测试能力,尤其是在多采样数高达1000之后,进而改善对敏感电子元件的保护。
5. ESD Electrostatic Discharge Diode: ESD Electrostatic Discharge Diode is an over-voltage, anti-static protection device designed for I/O port protection of high-speed data transmission applications. ESD protection devices are used to avoid the influence of ESD (electrostatic discharge) on sensitive circuits in electronic devices. It can provide very low capacitance, excellent transmission line pulse (TLP) test and IEC6100-4-2 test capability, especially after the number of multi-sampling is up to 1000, thus improving the protection of sensitive electronic components.
6.PTC自恢复保险丝的作用:电路正常工作时它的阻值很小(压降很小),当电路出现过流使它温度升高时,阻值急剧增大几个数量级,使电路中的电流减小到安全值以下,从而使后面的电路得到保护。当故障排除之后,PPTC元件很快冷却并将回复到原来的低电阻状态,这样又象一只新的PPTC元件一样可以重新工作了。
6. The function of PTC self-recovery fuse: when the circuit works normally, its resistance value is very small (the voltage drop is very small). When the circuit overcurrent causes its temperature to rise, the resistance value increases several orders of magnitude sharply, so that the current in the circuit can be reduced to below the safety value, thus the back circuit can be protected. After troubleshooting, the PPTC component cools quickly and returns to its original low resistance state, so that it can work again like a new PPTC component.
7.电感的作用:电磁的关系相信大家都清楚,电感的作用就是在电路刚开始的时候,一切还不稳定的时候,如果电感中有电流通过,就一定会产生一个与电流方向相反的感应电流(法拉第电磁感应定律),等到电路运行了一段时间后,一切都稳定了,电流没有什么变化了,电磁感应也就不会产生电流,这时候就稳定了,不会出现突发性的变故,从而保证了电路的安全,就像水车,一开始由于阻力转动的比较慢,后来慢慢趋于平和。电感还有一个作用就是通直流,阻交流,这个用的不多,我也不太清楚具体怎么用,等用到了再和大家分享
7. The role of inductance: I believe everyone knows that the role of inductance is that at the beginning of the circuit, when everything is not stable, if there is current passing through the inductance, it will produce an inductive current opposite to the current direction (Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction). After a period of operation of the circuit, everything is stable, and the current is nothing. Change, the electromagnetic induction will not generate current, then stable, no sudden changes, so as to ensure the safety of the circuit, like water trucks, at first because of the slow rotation of resistance, and then gradually become calm. Another function of inductance is to turn on DC and block AC. This is not very useful. I am not sure how to use it. I will share it with you when I use it.
8.磁珠的作用:磁珠有很高的电阻率和磁导率,他等效于电阻和电感串联,但电阻值和电感值都随频率变化。 他比普通的电感有更好的高频滤波特性,在高频时呈现阻性,所以能在相当宽的频率范围内保持较高的阻抗,从而提高调频滤波效果,在以太网芯片上用到过。
8. The function of magnetic beads: magnetic beads have high resistivity and permeability, which are equivalent to resistance and inductance in series, but the values of resistance and inductance vary with frequency. Compared with ordinary inductors, it has better high-frequency filtering characteristics and presents resistance at high frequencies, so it can maintain high impedance in a wide frequency range, thereby improving the effect of FM filtering, which has been used in Ethernet chips.

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